Positive Comprehensive Behavior Management

For All Students: A Team-Based Approach

Dr. Michael Rosenberg of Johns Hopkins University has developed a team-based intervention approach system for children with behavior problems. Questions for Thought: 1. What aspects of the PAR model make it so successful? 2. What kind of results have been documented in the places PAR has been put into effect? I. The PAR Model: A Comprehensive Plan II. Developing Rules A General case rules B. Specific case rules C. How it will be taught D. Available supports III. Supports A Addresses needs B. Adapted instruction C. Preclude failure D. Want success E. Positive consequences F. Promote compliance IV. Beneficial Outcomes A Internal locus of control B. Firm and businesslike C. Value appropriate behaviors V. Follow-Up Programs A Cognitive Behavior Modification B. Social skills instruction C. Peer mediation D. Structured advisories VI. Results A Improved response ratings B. Improved collaboration C. Reduced referrals



Overview of the PAR Model Michael S. Rosenberg, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University

For several years, faculty at Johns Hopkins University's Department of Special Education have been assisting LEA-based programs serving students with troubling behaviors in the development of comprehensive management programs. Building from the work and experiences of Curwin and Mendler, Evertson, Deshler, as well as other field-based teachers and researchers, PAR is a process-based, operational model in which collaborative teams of teachers, school administrators, and related service personnel work together within a prescriptive workshop format (Rosenberg, 199 1) come to consensus on plans and strategies to (a) PREVENT the occurrence of troubling behavior, (b) ACT or respond to, instances of rule compliance and noncompliance in a consistent fashion, and (c) RESOLVE many of the issues which underlie or cause troubling behavior. In essence, building-based teams design their own unified plan of action based upon data-based procedures that have been documented to work. Figure 1 illustrates the specific components of the PAR model that team members design for implementation. Briefly, PAR training typically follows the following sequence of events: Over the course of a three to five day training period, a facilitator, using a variety of learning activities (lecture, discussion, and video-tapes) presents data-based exemplars of "what works" for each of the PAR components. Using this information, the teams develop their own plan, building on the unique character of their settings, and available personnel and resources. Each team completes a structured jargon-free PAR management plan that is readily understood by all involved in the education and treatment of students (e.g., parents, students, related service personnel, bus drivers, etc.). Participants begin by agreeing upon rules, expectations, and procedures that can preempt problem behaviors. This is followed by the development of specific procedures for the implementation of positive consequences to promote rule compliance. An intervention hierarchy for negative consequences (for noncompliance) and specific crisis procedures are also developed. Finally, specific resolution interventions and logistical concerns regarding implementation are discussed. As it is expected that all products produced during PAR training are to be applied, target dates for implementation and evaluation are noted, and strategies to promote fidelity to the agreed upon management plan are articulated. PAR training has been delivered in over 50 schools in the Baltimore/Washington area. Earlier teams have been comprised of individuals serving special education Intensity 4 and 5 students with troubling behaviors; recent efforts, however, have focused on entire school buildings. Technical assistance follow-up procedures supplement the program to assist in the maintenance of plan procedures. Initial outcome data indicate that the programs are successful when plans are designed and implemented in a collaborative fashion.

HMS Standards

Because we value education,

  1. We are on time, prepared, and participate in class.
  2. We respect the space and property of others.
  3. We are considerate in language.and actions.
  4. We follow directions the first time they are given.
  5. We travel with a pass.


1. On Time
Students arrive in class before the late bell.
Prepared for Class
Students bring all materials needed for class, leaving. gum, candy, and radios at home. Leave coats, backpacks, and hats in lockers.
Students follow class procedures and are actively involved in class activities.
2. Respect of Space & Property
Students respect themselves.
Students are aware of and respect each other's personal space and property
(HOP - "Hands off, please.")
3. Language
Students do not curse, use "put downs," or make ethnic remarks. Students use appropriate tone and nonverbal communication.
Students consider their actions and choose to be courteous toward an individual or an entire class.
4. Following directions
Students follow directions when given the first time from any adult in the HMS community.
5. Passes
When going to the bathroom, students will use the teacher's bathroom pass. For all other movement in the hallways, teachers will provide one pass for each student who must leave the room.

Rules Development Worksheet

General Case Rule The students will be prepared for class.
Meaning of Rule in My Class The students will be in their seat at the ringing of the bell with books, writing tools, drill and homework.
Teaching the Rule Role playing "The Prepared Student"Display prepared materials
Available Supports Have pencils available for borrowingPraise to those who are preparedProvide visual and verbal remindersChecklist of supplies needed to be prepared

Classroom Consequences

When the Hammond Standards are not being met, these are the guidelines our staff will follow. PARENTS MAY BE NOTIFIED AT ANY LEVEL DEPENDING ON THE SEVERITY OF THE SITUATION. Level One: The teacher will remind the class of the standard. Level Two: The teacher will remind the individual student of the standard. Level Three: The teacher will ask to speak to the student at the end of class, during lunch, or during advisory. Level Four: The student will go to a tirne out area and read materials related to Hammond's school plan. Level Five: The student returns to the time out area and puts in writing a plan that will help him or her meet Hammond's Standards. The plan will be reviewed by the teacher. "Deep Six": At this level, parents, teachers, guidance, administrators, or any other student support service will intervene to assist the student in meeting his or her responsibilities as a citizen of Hammond Middle School.
Classroom Discipline
For more information
Teacher's Workshop 1250 Overlook Ridge Bishop, GA 30621
Call: 1-800-991-1114
Email us at: [email protected]